When should an essay writer provide a source apex

How to Use Sources When Writing an Essay

Citing sources when you are writing an essay can seem complicated at first, but if you follow the rules it gets easier. The importance of using sources correctly when writing an essay cannot be overstated. Writers must be credited with their ideas and language. Not to do so is considered plagiarism, which is frowned upon at every level from elementary school through college and beyond.

Step 1

Make sure you understand the assignment before you spend a great deal of time doing research. Once you have determined your topic and thesis statement, it is a good idea to check with your teacher or professor to be sure you are on the right track.

Step 2

Use varied sources from reputable books, periodicals and websites. Make sure that your source is reputable because today, anyone can post or print information. Try to use a primary source, such as a governmental agency or an accredited organization. Encyclopedias and periodicals can also be good sources of information. If you use a website, make sure you know where the information is coming from. Some sites look official, but in reality may be slanted and not evenhanded.

Step 3

Use a style guide such as the “MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers” and Kate Turabian’s “A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.” These publications discuss the research process, mechanics, format, bibliography style and documentation sources with examples of citation.

Step 4

Write your research information on index cards, with the source on the front and your notes on the back. For a book, write the name of the book, the author, the place and date of publication, the publisher and the page numbers. For a website, use the specific page, not just the homepage. For an encyclopedia, include the name of the series, the volume, the publisher, the date and place of publication and page numbers. See your style guide for more specific information about presenting your sources.

Step 5

On your index card, give each source a number. If you need more than one card for your notes, give each one the same number if they share the same source. Use this number system to keep track of your sources when you prepare your “Works Cited” list at the end of the essay.

Step 6

As you use research information in your essay in the form of a quote, paraphrase or summary, you must cite its source either in parenthetical documentation placed after the referenced material or by a footnote or endnote. Parenthetical documentation states the source of your reference with parentheses near the text. Footnotes typically appear at the bottom of the page; endnotes appear at the end of the essay. You must consult your style guide to follow the format correctly.

Do your research in a library, where you will have access to a variety of sources and the research librarian.

Use a flash drive that can travel from your home computer to the library computer.

Avoid plagiarism by using citation correctly. Plagiarism is considered a serious issue by colleges and universities.

The Only Guide to Essay Writing You’ll Ever Need

The Only Guide to Essay Writing You’ll Ever Need

Feel passionately about something and want to share it? Write an essay! Disagree with a popular opinion and wish to convince others to join you? Write an essay! Need to write something because the college you dream of attending is making you? Write an essay!

“Essay” is a loose term for writing that asserts the author’s opinion on a topic, whether academic, editorial, or even humorous. There are a thousand different approaches to essay writing and a million different topics to choose from, but what we’ve found is that good essay writing tends to follow the same framework.

Below we discuss that framework and how you can apply it to your essays, whatever types they may be. But first, let’s start with the nucleus of any good essay: the topic.

What is your essay about?

There are three things to consider before writing your essay: thesis, type, and audience. Of these, the most important by far is your thesis, or the crux of what your essay is about.

Your thesis, encapsulated in your thesis statement, is the central point you’re trying to make. The thesis of Bertrand Russell’s essay “ In Praise of Idleness ,” for example, is that people focus too much on work and don’t value time spent idly. Essays can occasionally stray and go into related tangents, but they always come back to that one core idea in the thesis.

You should always pinpoint your thesis before writing. If you’re having trouble nailing it down, ask yourself, “What’s the one thing I want my reader to remember when they’re done reading my essay?”

The best practice is to include your thesis as soon as possible, even in your topic sentence if it’s appropriate. You’ll want to reiterate it throughout the essay as well, especially when wrapping up everything in the conclusion.

The rest of your essay, then, supports your thesis. You can include empirical evidence, testimonials, logical deductions, or even persuasive rhetoric—whatever gets the job done. The point is that you’re building upon your initial thesis, not switching to completely different topics.

Types of essays

Like any form of writing, essays come in many different types. Sometimes the assignment dictates the type, as with admissions essays, and other times the thesis will determine it. Regardless, it helps to know what your options are, so here are some of the most common essay types:

Argumentative essay

Argumentative essays assert or defend a position. This is the most common type of school paper, so keep that in mind when writing your first college essay .

Admissions essay

Most colleges request an admissions essay in applications, which typically revolve around why you’re interested in their school.

Persuasive essay

A persuasive essay is just as it sounds: an essay to persuade or convince the reader of a certain point. It’s similar to an argumentative essay— they both strongly favor a particular point of view, but the difference is the end goal: Argumentative essays just have to present their case, while persuasive essays have to present their case and win over the reader.

Compare-and-contrast essay

When you want to devote equal attention to two opposing things, a compare-and-contrast essay works better than argumentative or persuasive essays, which lean to one side over the other.

Personal essay

Personal essays are often anecdotal or real-life stories of the authors, like the works of David Sedaris . Because they tend to follow narrative structures, the thesis can be flexible or interpretive.

Expository essay

An expository essay thoroughly explains a certain topic to expand the reader’s knowledge. It is similar to an argumentative and persuasive essay in format, but with one key difference: expository essays don’t have a bias.

Essay writing for an audience

Your final consideration is who will read your essay—a teacher, an admissions counselor, your peers, the internet at large, etc.

No matter what you’re writing, your audience should influence your language. For one thing, your readers determine whether the essay is formal or casual, which has an enormous impact on language, word choice, and style. Take emojis for example: In a casual essay they might be welcome, but for formal writing they’re not the most appropriate choice. 😓

Your audience also affects the essay’s tone, or how you sound on an emotional level (enthusiastic, cautious, confident, etc.). If you’d like to know more, you can read about the 10 common types of tone here .

The essay writing process

If you’re writing an essay, research paper, term paper, novel, short story, poem, screenplay, blog article about essay writing—when writing just about anything , really—it’s crucial to follow an efficient writing process. Even if you prefer the stream of consciousness style for writing your rough draft, you still need to have an orderly system that allows you to revise and hone.

For essay writing, we recommend the standard five-step writing process :

1 Brainstorming

It always helps to collect your thoughts before you begin writing. Based on your prompt or thesis, try to generate as many ideas as possible to include in your essay. Think of as many as time allows, knowing that you’ll be able to set aside the ideas that don’t work later.

2 Preparing

The preparation phase consists of both outlining your essay and collecting resources for evidence. Take a look at the results of your brainstorming session. First, isolate the ideas that are essential to support your thesis and then organize them in a logical and progressive order. In this stage you’ll incorporate your essay structure, which we explain below. If you want empirical evidence or complementary citations, track them down now.

3 Drafting

This is the main stage of essay writing where you roll up your sleeves and actually write the first draft. Remember that everything doesn’t have to be perfect; this is your first draft, not your final draft, so give yourself the freedom to make errors. If you’re focusing on getting every single word right, you’ll miss the big picture.

4 Revising

The revisions stage involves your second draft, your third draft, or even your twelfth draft if necessary. Address all the nuances and subtleties you glossed over in the first draft.

Pay attention to both word choice and clarity, as well as sophisticated writing techniques like avoiding the passive voice . If you’re not confident in your writing skills yet, the Grammarly Editor ensures your writing is readable, clear, and concise by offering sentence structure and word choice suggestions, plus clarity revisions as you write. Grammarly helps catch common mistakes with sentence structure—like run-on sentences, sentence fragments, passive voice, and more.

5 Proofreading

When all the heavy-duty revisions are finished, it’s time for the final polish. Go through your essay and correct misspellings, formatting issues, or grammatical errors. (This is also where you can turn to Grammarly’s AI-powered writing assistant, which helps catch these common mistakes for you.)

Essay structure

Essay structure almost always follows a simple beginning-middle-end format, or in this case, an introduction-body-conclusion format. However, it’s what’s contained within those sections that makes all the difference.


Essays follow the same guidelines for introductions as any other piece of writing, with an extra emphasis on presenting the thesis prominently, ideally in the topic sentence. By the end of your introduction paragraph, your reader should know without a doubt what your essay is about. From there, follow the conventional best practices on how to write an introduction .

Body paragraphs

The majority of your essay is body paragraphs, all of which support your thesis and present evidence.

Pay close attention to how you organize your body paragraphs. Some arguments benefit from a logical progression, where one point leads to a second, and that second point leads to a third. Remember that the reader doesn’t understand the topic like you do (that’s why you’re writing the essay), so organize your paragraphs in the way that’s best for their comprehension.

What if you’re writing an argumentative essay where you compare and contrast two or more points of view? Do you present your argument first and then share opposing points of view, or do you open with your opposition’s argument and then refute it?

Serious writers can get pretty technical about how to organize an argumentative essay. There are three approaches in particular used often: Aristotlian (classical), Rogerian , and Toulmin . However, these can get exceedingly complicated, so for a simple essay, a basic structure will do just fine:

  1. Your point
  2. Counterpoint
  3. Evidence supporting your point and/or disproving counterpoint


Essay conclusions wrap up or summarize your thesis in a way that’s easy for the reader to digest. If you get the chance, you can add a new perspective or context for understanding your thesis, but in general the conclusion should not present any new evidence or supporting data. Rather, it’s more of a recap. For more specific tips, read about how to write a conclusion for an essay here .

Five-paragraph essay

For quick and simple essays, you don’t need to get too technical with your essay structure. The five-paragraph essay structure works well in a pinch. This contains:

  • One introduction paragraph
  • Three body paragraphs
  • One conclusion paragraph

While this essay structure might not be flexible enough for more advanced topics, it comes in handy when speed is a factor, like during timed tests.

Essay writing tips

Master the five fundamentals

Especially for school essays, your reader will scrutinize how well you handle the fundamentals. Knowing about essay structure and the writing process is one thing, but can you demonstrate an understanding of language style? Can you develop your thesis logically and coherently? Are your references and citations trustworthy?

When you’re ready for the next step of essay writing, take a look at the five concepts you must master to write better essays . The tips there pick up where this guide leaves off.

Seek out another pair of eyes

This tip is not just for essays; it’s always advisable to have someone else read over your writing before finalizing it. All too often we miss the forest for the trees, and thinking long and hard on the same topic can give you tunnel vision. The solution is to get a fresh take from someone who’s seeing it for the first time.

Typically you can swap with a friend and edit each others’ works. If that’s not an option, however, you can also use a writing center or join a writing group online. At the very least, you should sleep on it and take another look when you’re refreshed.

Remember: Grammar and form are essential

It’s not always about what you say, but how you say it. You could have the most obvious, objectively agreeable thesis in the world, but if your writing is incoherent, confusing, and full of mistakes, it’s tough to engage with your reader.

For when your writing needs to make the right impact, Grammarly Premium offers full-sentence rewrites for confusing sentences—from splitting long sentences, cutting extra words, or rearranging key phrases—in addition to catching common grammar mistakes. It also gives you readability-focused formatting suggestions, so you know your writing is clear. It also helps those who are looking to improve their writing skill level in English, with suggestions for commonly misused words and phrases.

Honing your writing with these elements in mind is key to relaying your point to your reader—and asserting your thesis as effectively as possible.

Cause and Effect Essay Writing Guide: With Outline, Topics, and Examples

Wondering how to write a cause-and-effect essay? Writing a cause-and-effect essay might not be an easy task for most of us so you do not need to worry. However, is your deadline approaching and you are still in the middle of nowhere? Check this out!

During your high school or middle school, you may come across essays in academic writing that require you to state the cause and effect essay introduction. These causes and effects can be of any situation, society condition, religious belief, or event.

Students sometimes are unable to create a comparison between a simple essay and the essay that requires specific causes and effects. For a better understanding of the students, here you have a quick guide on how to write such an essay.

What is a cause and effect essay?

This essay type is also termed as result essay as in this you have to provide the cause and then the effect of a situation or event for a good essay title. Discussing cause and its effects is a common way of defining any event.

The effect stated by the writer either be positive or negative effects. While writing such an essay, you must have the following questions answered, which relate to the provided topic.

  • What are the causes of the event, situation, or scenario?
  • What are its effects?
  • Are there single or multiple causes?
  • Are there single or multiple effects of a single cause?
  • What is the major effect that should be emphasized?
  • Is there any chain reason that is triggering more effects out of the same cause?

How To Write A Cause And Effect Essay?

Follow these steps to write a perfect cause and effect essay.

1. Brainstorming

In this step you need to focus a lot and collect the ideas regarding your topic. Thinking enough and deducing unique ideas is far better than copying anything from the web that stops making sense when used multiple times in every other research/essay.

2. Planning for thesis

You always need a thesis for your research, you cannot continue doing your research without a thesis so the next step is planning to create one good thesis that adds value to the research.

3. Planning for body of the essay

The body of the essay is the central part that contains all the major details and ideas. It has to be well-written and for that a complete planning process is also mandatory. So do plan for writing the body of your essay and see the clear results showing better execution of information.

4. Rough drafting

A rough draft is better than a final draft that contains countless errors. Create a rough draft first and then make the necessary changes later to make it the final one. It will be much better than struggling to create a final draft in the first go.

5. Review

Keeping reviewing and seeing how you can improve your work. Read line by line and then analyze if your work is 100% perfect to be submitted. It is important and can save you from embarrassment of submitting a poor quality essay.

6. Final drafting

It’s time to create the final draft by repeating the steps mentioned above.

7. Proofreading

The proofreading is must too so you cannot miss this step in order to get a refined final copy of your research essay.

Let’s discuss these in detail:


By brainstorming, we mean planning for ideas to be included in your essay. This is usually a process in which the writer imagines certain things in his/her mind and might jot it down for a record purpose so that it can help him in later stages of writing. Such ideas include planning for the cases and their effects to be included in the paragraphs, the introduction planning, and at the end how to conclude such an essay. It might, however, vary. Here is one of a sample to show you how brainstorming works:

Planning For Thesis

Thesis is the main consideration in your entire essay. However, each essay type has a distinct thesis statement that is different from the other essay type. In such an essay type, the thesis defines some cause-and-effect relations that will be discovered in the essay later on.

So, begin planning for your thesis just after brainstorming because this would ultimately lead you to a good essay as it provides a direction to writing and generates lots of broad topics to be included. Hence, have good planning for this immediately.

Planning For Body Of The Essay

As the body of the essay is the main part where major discussion is being done, a good planning for such an area is must. According to a standard format, it consists of 1-5 paragraphs depending on the word count of the essay. For a short one, it might be only a paragraph while for a longer one, it might be as long as 5 paragraphs. Body paragraphs explore a specific area of the causal relationship and at this point in time, you (as a writer) have to develop and write the central ideas for the paragraphs.

It is also mandatory here that you plan for topic sentences to be included in these paragraphs that will help to make an essay longer.

Rough Drafting

After all of the above steps i.e., brainstorming, planning for thesis, and planning for a body, you are at a stage to write a good draft but as a rough document to be on the safer side. Do not overthink at this stage whether your draft is going to be good or not, just go with the flow and write whatever is relevant to it, you will later on do the necessary steps to purify them.

In this draft, add transitions wherever necessary to ensure a flowy transmission from one idea to another, add good topic sentences, and link all paragraphs to the thesis. However, do keep in mind the importance and purpose of your essay.


Review your rough draft that you have made in the above steps so that you can purify further, your ideas and thoughts that might be raw at this point in time. Make sure that the points you have made are clear, concise, relevant, to the point, and highlight the relation of a cause and the effect. This is going to be of a greater importance as you will be making a final draft shortly after doing this step.

Final Drafting

This is the main step of all for which we do all of the above processes. After having a careful review of your rough draft, write a final essay now at this stage. Also write the parts in the final draft which you don’t have yet planned for, such as the conclusion. You will ultimately arrive at a good conclusion when you are done writing a good body and introduction (the thesis part).


Now, done with the final document? Let’s move to the last but not the least part of your writing part which is of prime importance in the whole demonstration. Proofread your final draft at the end so to ensure that it is free of any error, spelling mistakes, vocabulary etc. Because we humans unintentionally make silly mistakes which can be avoided easily, proofreading has an importance in such a condition.

You can also ask a friend, a family member, or an instructor to help you in such a process. They are going to point out things which you might not be able to. So, the good practice is to ask them to read your essay and tell you the areas for further improvement. Believe me, this is going to work great.

Now let’s move to the further guide to help out in starting your cause and effect essay.

How To Arrange A Cause And Effect Essay?

By arranging such an essay, we mean that:

  1. Choosing a good topic for whatever area you want.
  2. The topic should be majorly based on your interest
  3. Make sure to follow the proper structure as stated in here.
  4. Must state a cause and its effect or effects
  5. You can also state an effect and then its cause or causes.
  6. Make sure you are on the right track

How to write a cause and effect essay introduction?

Like every essay, it also has an introduction section. In this section provide the relevant information regarding the environment or the surrounding in which the topic situation arises. Discuss here the “cause” of a certain situation and its major “effect” on the surrounding.

In this section, you either decide whether you go with a cause statement or comfortable arguing on its effects. Choose the one and go along with it, formulating the thesis statement in the ending paragraphs of the intro.

Cause and effect essay introduction example

Example 1: Cause and Effect Essay Introduction on Health

It is said that “health is wealth” and there’s nothing that we can doubt about it. Every year more than 90% people in the world face different sorts of diseases, most of them get recovered, while many live those diseases for the rest of the life. The problem is not keeping health as priority, which is why only 5% people in the world are completely healthy. The world is in a dire need to make healthy lifestyle a priority as soon as possible.

Example 2: Cause and Effect Essay Introduction on Obesity

According to a research, about 650 million adults in the world are a victim of obesity. The reason is simple, an unhealthy lifestyle and careless eating order. It is extremely important to prioritize a clean and healthy diet if one wants to lose weight and get into shape. Otherwise more people will get affected by unhealthy eating habits.

Cause And Effect Essay Outline

Cause and effect essay transition words

The use of structure or transition words is crucial in such an essay. The use of such words helps the reader to clearly identify the relationship between a cause and an effect.

Cause examples

  • The worsening traffic condition in the city yesterday was due to heavy rain.
  • Air pollution is increasing day by day because of more use of CFCs.
  • As a result of a flood in some areas of the country, villagers face a pathetic lifestyle.
  • The effect of increased poverty, the crime level is raised in the city.
  • As obesity rates increase, people develop health issues.
  • With increased use of social media, academic excellence decreases.

Effect examples

  • Heavy rain in the city served as a consequence of traffic jams on the roads.
  • More use of CFCs effects inhabitant’s lives and also increases air pollution.
  • Flood is one of the causes why villagers are living pathetic lives these days.
  • Hence it is proved that increased poverty led to a rise in crime levels.
  • It proves that obesity is the cause of health issues.
  • Thus, social media is the cause of deviation from academic activities.

Cause And Effect Essay topics

Following can be good essay topic ideas:

  • Effects of Pollution.
  • The Changes in the Ocean.
  • The Civil Rights Movement and the Effects.
  • Causes and Effects of the Popularity of Fast-Food Restaurants.
  • Internet Influence on kids.
  • Popularity of Sports in the US.
  • Effects of professional sport on children.
  • Alcohol and nervous system.
  • Growing up in poverty
  • Stress impact on health.
  • What was your cause for choosing your major/your college?
  • Why is the education system for present students boring?
  • What is the effect of technology on learning?
  • How are extra-curricular activities going to affect students?
  • The effects of exposure on the learning behavior of a student
  • Robotics and its applications to change the world
  • The effect of a gap year on students’ learning
  • Positive and negative effects of uniforms
  • The effect of new state of art technology on aviation industry
  • Effects of excessive non-work-related activities
  • How communication affects the overall performance in an organization?
  • Global warming and its side effects

However, these are just a few of them. Check out our effort on cause and effect essay topics for more information.

Cause And Effect Essay Examples

As you know every college student has to write cause and effect essays at least once in each course, here are some cause and effect essay examples that students can use for their reference.

Obesity Cause And Effect Essay

Obesity Cause And Effect Essay

Cause And Effect Essay On Health

Cause And Effect Essay on health


  1. The purpose of such an essay is to determine an element of “how”. Such as how various elements are inter-related or simply put, related?
  2. Thesis statements in such essays state the writers’ vision about the causes, effects, and various causes and its effects of a condition or an event.
  3. The organization can be in both ways, i.e.:
  4. Begin with a cause and then state its effects
  5. Begin with an effect and then state the cause of it.
  6. Facts, evidence, statistical data, and strong figures are very important to be stated in such an essay because of the complexity in determining the connection between certain phenomena for a strong essay format.
  7. Transition words and phrases must be used that are very helpful in connecting various elements in the essay and ensuring a flowy transition from one sentence to another, one paragraph to another, and one idea to another etc.


It is clearly evident here that a good essay of such sort requires proper procedures and steps that need to be followed in the first place to make your essay top-notch. The causes should be clearly stated with the possible reasons and then the impact of them. From introduction to writing a conclusion, your essay should be properly aligned and organized.

To develop a solution to the problem of a certain thing, proper understanding of its causes and effects must be considered, understood, and analyzed. Your writing should be true when it comes to practicality; just as stated in the essay we have presented above.

Perfect essay writers hope you are now familiar with the Essay writing styles and tips. Take your steps towards writing compelling essays and soar your grades by choosing perfect essay topics.

So, what are you waiting for? Order now for best assessment, assignments, Cause and effect essays and more by our team of expert essay writers and make both your essay and experience, a top-notch.

Formatting the Works Cited Page (MLA)

Whenever you incorporate outside sources into your own writing, you must provide both in-text citations (within the body of the paper) and full citations (in the works cited page). The in-text citations point your reader toward the full citations in the works cited page.

That’s why the first bit of information in your in-text citation (generally, the author’s name; if no name is provided, the title of the article/book/webpage) should directly match up with the beginning of your works cited entry for that source.

For example, let’s say I have a quote from Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communities in my research paper. Within the body of the paper, following the quote, I include the following in-text citation: (Anderson 56). This information points to the book’s entry in my works cited page:

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 2006. Print.

When your reader sees the in-text citation in your essay, she may decide that the source might be valuable for her own research. When she looks at the works cited page, she can easily locate the source (because the works cited page is alphabetized and because she has the in-text citation as her referent) and then can use the full citation to retrieve a copy of the source for her own research. But aside from providing the reader with resources for her own research, the works cited page serves another function: it establishes the writer’s credibility. If a writer fails to include in-text citations and/or a works cited page, that writer has plagiarized because he or she has neglected to provide the publication information of the source. In addition, when a reader locates undocumented information in an essay, she will likely think that the information was made up by the writer or that the information was stolen from a source, or plagiarized. And when a reader peruses a writer’s works cited page, she can see the types of sources used by the writer, assessing those sources in terms of their credibility. For instance, if a reader reads my works cited page and sees I cite sources from university presses such as Oxford UP and Cambridge UP, she will know that I’ve incorporated credible sources into my research paper. Thus, including both in-text citations and a works cited page in a research paper provides the writer with ethos, or credibility.

Now let’s take a look at how to properly format a works cited page according to MLA guidelines:

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 2006. Print.

Boucicault, Dion. “Jessie Brown; or, The Relief of Lucknow.” Plays by Dion Boucicault. Ed Peter Thompson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1984. Print.

Bratlinger, Patrick. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988. Print.

Carens, Timothy. Outlandish English Subjects in the Victorian Domestic Novel. Cambridge: Palgrave, 2005. Print.

Collins, Wilkie. The Moonstone. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2002. Print.

Darwin, Charles. The Voyage of the Beagle. New York: Modern Library, 2001. Print.

Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan. The Sign of the Four. London: Aziloth Books, 2010. Print.

Haggard, H. Rider. She. Breinigsville, PA: Dodo, 2011. Print.

Herbert, Christopher. War of No Pity: The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2008. Print.


According to MLA guidelines, the works cited page should appear after the body of your paper and any accompanying endnotes. It should begin on a new page, and the pagination should continue from the body of the paper. In the above example, the works cited page begins on page 38, which means that the essay concluded on page 37.

General Format

The works cited page should be double-spaced throughout. The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin; if the entry extends more than one line, ensuing lines should be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. The first page of the works cited list should have the title “Works Cited,” not “Bibliography.” The works cited title should appear in the same manner as the paper’s title: capitalized and centered—not bolded, within quotation marks, italicized, underlined, or in a larger font.


The entries should be alphabetized based on the author’s last name. According to MLA guidelines, author names come first in an entry, then titles, then the publication information (city of publication, publisher, and date of publication), and then the type of media—the details for different types of sources vary, but this is the general structure followed. Note that if the city is not “well-known” and there is more than one city with that name, unlike New York and London, then the state or territory should be included after the city, e.g., “Roswell, GA: 2006.” If no name is provided for a given source, the title of the work/webpage will take the place of the author’s last name and should still be placed in its proper alphabetical location. Also note that “university” and “press” are always abbreviated “U” and “P” in works cited entries.

Here are some guidelines for commonly used sources:

Single-Authored Book

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Type of media.

Bratlinger, Patrick. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988. Print.

Book with Multiple Authors

Last Name, First Name (of first author listed), and First Name Last Name (of second author, etc.).
Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Type of media.

Sabherhagen, Fred, and James V. Hart. Bram Stoker’s Dracula: A Francis Ford Coppola Film. New York: Signet, 1992. Print.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Collection (or Textbook)

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Book. Ed. First Name Last Name (of Editor). Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Page Range of Article. Type of Media.

Vieregge, Quentin. “Writing as Process.” Negotiating Writing Spaces. Ed. Jennifer Yirinec and Lauren Cutlip. Plymouth, MI: Hayden-McNeil, 2011. 57–59. Print.

Article in a Print Journal

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Journal. Volume #.Issue # (Date of publication): Page Range of Article. Print.

Rogers, Pat. “Crusoe’s Home.” Essays in Criticism 24.4 (Oct. 1974): 375–90. Print.

Journal Article Accessed Using an Electronic Database

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume #.Issue # (Date of publication): Page Range of Article. Database. Web. Date of Access.

Lamont, Rose C. “Coma versus Comma: John Donne’s Holy Sonnets in Edson’s WIT.” The Massachusetts Review 40.4 (Winter 1999–2000): 569–75. JSTOR. Web. 30 April 2012.

Article Accessed from an Online Journal

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume #.Issue # (Date of publication): n.pag. Web. Date of Access.

Haynsworth, Leslie. “All the Detective’s Men: Binary Coding of Masculine Identity in the Sherlock Holmes Stories.” Victorians Institute Journal 38 (2010): n.pag. Web. 16 May 2012.

Article from a Webpage

Last Name, First Name (if given). “Title of Webpage.” Website Title. Publisher of website (often found at the bottom of the page), date of last update. Web. Date of Access. See (URL is only necessary if you think your reader won’t easily be able to locate the webpage).

“Opening Night: Wit Starring Cynthia Nixon.” Broadway.com. Broadway.com, Inc., 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.

Entire Website

Website Title. Publisher of website, date of last update. Date of Access. See (URL is only necessary if you think your reader won’t easily be able to locate the webpage).

Broadway.com. Broadway.com, Inc., 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.

For information about how to format the works cited entries for different sources, consult The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). Or, consult the
Purdue OWL.

Introduction To Strategic Management Management Essay

Every organization is responsible of what they produce, how do they carry out their business activities, and also what do they need to keep in mind in terms of protecting the environment when it comes to their business that is related to extraction of oil from the deepwater. So the following of the assignment is based on the critical incident that occurred in BP and they suffered a hug loss due to explosion in one of their rigs in Gulf of Mexico and that resulted in major oil spill which had a serious effect not only on their business but also to the environment and society at large. So there is case study on British Petroleum and what type of strategic decision they should take and also apart from that what are the different challenges that this organization would face from the outside environment has been explained in detailed manner.

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Introduction to Strategic Management (SM)

So what do we understand by Strategic Management. As per Ireland (2009) it can be termed or explained as the strategy that organization has to make use of so that, they can be able to achieve common objectives of the organization and also at the same time it would be easy for the company to achieve competitive advantage in the market. SM is very important due to many reasons. They mainly include if the organization is facing problem in their business line, if they want to launch new product in the market, for proper analyzing the environment. Also the major decisions that the organization takes is also based on what strategy that they are going to use and how it would have an impact on their business revenues and profit margin.

The main definition for SM is “art or science in formulation, evaluation and also to take important decision that are cross functional in nature and that would actually help to achieve their common aims and their objectives” (Ireland, 2009). This simply means that they have to plan for their activity, then evaluate and then they need to implement after taking into consideration various points so that it would be easy to analyze and also cam make necessary changes as and when it is being required.

SM has been regarded as one of the important factor in the success of every organization. Apart from that, they also need to analyze what were their past or present actins and what outcome did they received and accordingly act for the later one. In the following assignment there is case study on BP where they had am major explosion in their rig and due to which there was one of biggest oil spill incident that occurred in their business operations. This incident was no more a business issues but it became a political issue and the job of this organization is how they tackle with this problem and what all challenges they have when taking future steps. So the main job of this organization was in taking immediate corrective steps to stop the spillage and also come out with the practical solution so that it does not harm any marine life and also human beings. They would have major opposition from the government, from other NGO and also from the society and they are responsible to answer them.

British Petroleum: General Overview

As per Raymond & Solly (2006) it has been well known fact that BP is the largest gas and oil extraction organization all round the world. The headquarters of BP are in London, United Kingdom. In terms of revenue, it is important to know that, BP is the 3rd biggest oil and natural gas organization and it is 4th largest in the world. The structure of the organization is such that, it is integrated vertically. It is mainly in to production and exploration oil and gas. The main business operation of Bp are exploring oil from the deepwater’s, to produce it, to refine it, distributing, and last but not the least they are also in marketing of their business operations. The petrochemical plan of BP is one the biggest and it also has their business operation in trading of the power (electricity) mainly in different parts of UK. Apart from that, BP has been a pioneer in production of renewable energy and they would include solar, wind energy, bio fuel and also hydrogen.

They have their operation in more than 80 regions worldwide. The total Bp station stand to around 22000 and it is produces or explores around 3.9 million of the oil barrels. One of the facts is, America is having one of their largest business operations and so it is one of the best and large producers of oil and gas in USA. In United States of America, their headquarters are in Houston, Texas. The major incident that BP had faced was in 2010 their oil spillage in the Gulf of Mexico. This is spillage was one of the worst in the history of oil and gas company. Their share prices are being traded in London stock exchange and also they have their dual listings in Ney York Stock Exchange.

It is regarded as best global brand all round the globe due to their business operations. They have clear understanding regarding the future and also it seems like their vision and mission seems to be quite possible. They are into that type of business, which is required by every individual, by every organization to run their business. Apart from that, the energy they produce is very much clean affordable and also it won’t cause any type of harm to the environment. Their name BP not only symbolizes their main brand name British Petroleum but also it indicates Beyond Petroleum.

Apart from that, their intention was not only to produce energy only by using natural resources but also to make use of alternate solution by producing renewable energy or alternative energy. Apart from that, they are very much fast in their approach and so can deliver better type of products that would be easy to use and also it would not have any type of damage to the society. This is how they do their business operations and due to which they are quite distinctive in their own way (Raymond & Solly, 2006).

Critical Incident in BP: Worst Oil Spillage

BP experienced one of the biggest oil spillage from their rig in the year 2010 at Gulf of Mexico. It has been said that, it is not only one of the worst oil spillage in the history of oil and gas industry. This incident occurred in Deepwater Horizon and so the effect of that was enormous and due to which environment has damaged to a great extent. Due to this, marine life was being affected to a great extent. The major cause of this spillage was due to explosion in their rig and that had taken the life of 11of their internal workers and many of them were injured, After few months from this incident, they realized the amount of oil spill but the damage was done and now their main responsibility is how to stop it and they also have to clean the water so that, marine life is not affected.

They made use of various techniques to stop the oil entering in the beaches or wetlands. They were able to protect almost 100 miles of the beaches that was being surrounded by it. Experts were being appointed to analyze the situation and they were of the view that, much of the oil that was being dissolved and hence not that much visible in the complete area.

Due to this major incident, government of US had solely blamed BP to take responsible for this entire issue and so they need to cover their damages and also ensure that they complete their clean up drive as soon as possible. Also BP agreed and promised to solve the problem as soon as possible as they were equipped with equal number of staff, and if need arises might recruit more employees. During this time, they had faced number of challenges from the government, their competitors, and their partners and also from the society at large.

Henry Mintzberg Model: Paradoxes and BP

As per (Source: mintzberg.org), every organization has their organizational chart or organization structure under which every organization works. So according to the Henry, there are mainly 5 different divisions in his model. They can be described and explained in the following way:

This are the people who are working in operation department and their main activity is to make sure that operations is being carried out properly and there is not such disruption in the work flow. They are regarded as the basic and fundamental structure in the organization.

So in case of BP incident, they had a major loss and due to which their operating core was one of the team who might be responsible for the oil spillage. They need to be alert all of the time and as they are Ealing with the natural resources and it can have negative effect on the company and environment and if not taken care of.

This part forms the top management of the organization. They are responsible to make important and qualitative decisions. Their main task is to ensure that their job is being done properly and also they need to make sure that the organizational objectives can be achieved at some point of time.

In case of BP, they have a structure of strategic apex but due to taking things lightly and also not working on their explosion related incident, they suffered a pressure from the government and held being responsible for that.

This is the division who needs to plan, design and alls implement new systems in place so that their business operations is not affected and also at times, they have to provide training to the other staff.

They from very crucial part of the organizational structure because they form a link between strategic apex and operating core. They are the middle level managers whose main responsibility to communicate effectively with both the division and ensure workflow is not affected due to communication gap.

In their case, their manager had to form a link and also make sure that they communicate the issue with their operating core and also at the same time help their strategic apex team to solve the matter as soon as possible.

They are the people who are working outside the operating flow. They form a important part in organizational structure and due to which, they are very much helpful at times of major crisis or during major incident. So they need to work outside their main operating workflow and ensure that, there is proper coordination in the organization. They support people, systems and then based on their analysis; they have to form a decision regarding the step that needs to be taken post the oil spill incident.

Key Strategic Decisions on the basis of Mintzberg Model

According to (Teece, Pisano, Shuen 1997)The main fundamental of strategic management is how the firms achieve and sustain to the competitive forces in the market as well as achieve the sustainable competitive advantage in the market. The importance of strategic management lies in its analysis planning an implementation in various strategies. On the analysis of British Petroleum current critical issues a broad and a descriptive strategic model has been prepared in order to achieve the competitive advantage in the market.

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Implementation of New Safety Measures

Safety measures are one problem that the company is facing since a very long time. The company has been very poor in order to safety measures of their Operational wells, Workers as well as their safety equipments. The safety systems of the company have seen a number of failures during crisis. During the Oil-spill the safety equipments could not respond properly as ell the warning alarms and systems were a complete failure which led to loss of life of 11 workers in the oil spill. The company need to adopt new safety measures by revaluating their systems. They need to upgrade their information systems which provide information during any alerts or crisis. The company should look in to safety of the employees much more seriously. Post-crisis compensation to the workers is not a solution. “One area of immediate concern, industry experts said, was the lack of a remote system that would have allowed workers to clamp shut Deepwater Horizon’s wellhead so it would not continue to gush oil. The rig is now spilling 210,000 gallons of oil a day into the Gulf of Mexico” ( [5] davidicke.com)

Low capital expenditure on project management

On analysis of the company operational structure the analysis have concluded that company have speeded more on project management instead of other important segments. It is the area where the company spends more than 20% and at the same time the company have squeezed the cost from other operational departments of the corporation. The company should look in to this issue and try balance the input of cost in the project management.

Higher Investment on maintenance and capital expenditure

From the analysis of the incident the company have done heavy investments in development of their project management but in this case the company have suffered a major setback when it came to invest in maintenance and safety equipments for their Oil wells and Workers. One of the major reasons of the outbreak of the Oil spill is the company s narrow attention towards critical issues of safety and security. The company should look in to this issue and increase the amount of expenditure in the capital assets of the organisation. The good wills of the company have gone really down due to the various such incidents in the life of the organisation. In order to restore their brand name in the market the company needs to undertake higher capital expenditure and maintenance cost.

Sharing Of Information

BP was accused during the Oil Spill of hiding information as well as sharing information up to a limited extent which made the shareholders of the company very much upset. The company also was not clear about the strategy they have placed in order to start the relief work and also cap the leakage the well which spilled almost 210000 gallons of oil a day. BP organisational structure is that they have to understand the importance of the situation and be clear about their steps and decisions which can affect many other individuals as well as other corporate.

Implementing new organisational Culture

The profits soared by the organisations is very much high and they achieved record profits in the past. At the same time the company have to understand and reorganise its management culture. The current management culture of BP is more of reactionary management culture. The current culture of the organisation believes in low maintenance cost, higher profitability and cutting costs and efficiency which have given arise to a number of other problems of the company. BP has to revaluate their companies complete management culture and stabilize it by more of motivational forces and concentrating on higher efficiency level.

Oil spill Clean up strategy.

The havoc created out of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill has been able to encounter new problems in the life of the organisation. Oil Spills usually causes of loss of sea life and a very amount of pollution to the marine life. The company have adopted a very moderate pace of cleaning up of the oil well and also the company to face challenges form the adverse sea conditions which led to more huge loss to the company. On the basis of this mistake and understanding the entire case the company should design the various ways in which such incident occurs in future the company is well equipped and do not repeat the same mistake in future.

These are some of the key decisions that the company needs to undertake in order ot restore their position in the market as well as cover up their losses. The oil spill have spoiled th name of the company in the global market. These are some steps suggested which will have make the company sustainable in the global market conditions.

Challenges to the Key Strategic decisions

Market competitiveness

The global market is subject to political, social as well as economical influences. In order to compete in the market a very high amount of sustainability is required. Analysing the current position of BP the company is standing very much weak and there have been number of issues recoded against the company. The company is known as one of the most irresponsible companies of the world. The company have to make major changes in its operations as well as other functional areas which will help to regain that image and attain that position in the market in which the company is having a sustainable competitive advantage in the market.

Environmental Pressure

The various environmentalists are after BP as the oil spill caused by them have resulted in to a major loss to the marine life and various regions in the nearby the gulf of Mexico. Also the company is supposed to pay up the cost of entire oil clean up as well the company is supposed to pay heavy compensation in order to loss of life and damage to marie life in the Gulf of Mexico. The Environmentalists are putting a very heavy pressure on the American Government in order to cease the operations of the BP in the Gulf of Mexico.

The company have faced the worst ever loss in the history if the organisations ever since it was incorporated .The company have written off a loss of almost of £19 billion which is the highest ever recorded in any company. The company is also planning to sell of its assets of almost £18 billion in the next 18 months in order to attain its financial stability. This shows that there are a lot of issues regarding its financial stability and investments in other projects. Also the company s major venture with Russia is also been under threat after the company was nit able to meet up their venture agreements.

Problems of Meeting Targets

The current position of the company indicates the worst ever crisis in the life of the irganisation. In accordance to key strategic decisions the company is facing the problem of meeting their targets as the company had to shut their gulf of Mexico well due to the spill which is creating a major concern for the production department of the company. The company is facing major delays in extracting oil fro oil well which is again underlying major losses for the organisation.

Share Holder Issue

One of the major critical and the most challenging issue faced by the company is from its own shareholders. The shareholders of the company are loosing trust in the company as the company did not adopt appropriate measure during the spill which led to the downfall of the shares of the company in the global market. Also the company did not inform all the necessary information to the company shareholders which have again resulted to the issue pertaining the shareholders of the company


The following assignment have studies the current strategic position if British Petroleum and the impact of the oil spill on the company’s strategic decision making and management. Strategic management is equally necessary along with the operational management in order to attain a sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic decisions are completely based on the current market position as well as their future targets and objectives of the company. In the report e have analysed the importance f strategic management with the help of the model prepared by Henry Mintzberg as well analysing key factors of the organisation which caused the critical issue. On the learning of the strategic model a strategic plan is prepared which will help the company to regain its loss status as well as cover up its loss .Finally any strategy which is designed have to be prepared after understanding the challenges faced by the organisation in the market. The research based model of strategic management is been analysed from various books, Journals and news papers to facilitate current and recent information on the company strategic position.


R. Duane Ireland, (2009), “Strategic Management”, 1st edition, Published by South western, USA

Raymond & Solly (2006), “BP tankers”, 1st edition , Published by Chatham, University of Michigan.

http://indolinkenglish.wordpress.com/2009/08/31/bp-sends-1-5bn-deal-to-india/, assessed on 16.12.2010

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2010/sep/08/bp-oil-spill-report-live, assessed on 16.12.2010

http://www.mintzberg.org/, assessed on 17.12.2010

http://mpkpk2008.blogspot.com/2008/11/six-basic-parts-of-organization.html, assessed on 17.12.2010

http://www.davidicke.com/headlines/33515-bp-fought-safety-measures-at-deepwater-oil-rigs asssed on 18.12.2010

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How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

In order to write an essay, you need a plan to adhere to the correct structure and composition. When the idea of ​​writing appears in your head, write it, because inspiration is fleeting. It may seem that a literary essay is much more difficult to write than any other type, but with our advice, you will surely succeed. So how to write a literary analysis essay?

What is a literary analysis essay and what is its purpose?

The purpose of a literature essay analysis is to evaluate and examine a particular literary work or some aspect of it. It describes the main topic or idea of the book you read.

This can be achieved by breaking the work down into composite analysis. In order to better understand a particular literary work, it is necessary to study its main elements. And in different genres of literature, you will refer to different schemes. For example, in the analysis of the poem, you will touch upon various types of paintings in the poem or the relationship of the content and form of the work. When analyzing the play, you can revise the whole plot and describe its analysis or, for example, study the main tragic hero, his shortcomings or advantages that will be visible in his development along with the text.

How to start a literary analysis? When you just read a book, it draws more attention to your own emotions and experiences that provide the pleasure of reading. But while writing a literary analysis essay, the main thing is to consider these points:

  • Subject
  • The style of the work
  • Form for submitting ideas
  • Main theme
  • The relationship between form and content
  • The relationship between the main plot and the subplot
  • Strengths and weaknesses of characters
  • Strengths and weaknesses of the plot

Writing is a pointed, focused expression of thought and study. When you develop in writing, then along with this, your perception of the world develops and your critical thinking and analysis skills improve. You develop creative thinking and ideas because without them there would be no writing. The main goal in a literary and analytical essay is to appeal to the reader in such a way that he sees what position you hold and goes over to your side. There must be concrete development, the writing of the text must be decisive and has no right to stumble.

As you can see, control, structure, and adherence to the rules for writing an essay are important. The first thing you need to find is the main idea. In other words, a thesis in which there should be several paragraphs. This is necessary in order to show the gradation of thought: how thoughts grow and develop from one central idea. You must do everything to develop the thesis and to convey your main idea to the reader. Ideally, the reader would be inclined to accept your idea correctly and be on your side.

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Here are the basic principles of this essay:

  1. Your work should fully highlight the topic you are writing about.
  2. The essay should have the main idea, which will be the starting point for the development of all work.
  3. The structure of the essay should be written in such a way that the reader comes to conclusions regarding the main idea that will be described.

What must literature essays include?

The main thing here is to avoid having to write all the thoughts that come to your mind after reading the book. Always stick to the structure.

  • Formulate a specific topic, which will proceed from the central idea about which you want to tell the reader.
  • There should be a central thesis from which it will immediately become clear what your work is about. It should be understandable. Everything that you write in your essay should relate to this thesis and confirm it.
  • The basic structure of any form of academic writing includes an introduction, a framework, and a conclusion. This formula must be adhered to while writing a literary essay.

✏️Examples of literary analysis:

In “A Worn Way”, the author Eudora Welty creates a fictional character, Phoenix Jackson, who collects traits such as determination, faith, and cunning to illustrate the indestructible human spirit.

This is a very strong thesis because everything is collected here: the work itself and its author are indicated, and character as well to be analyzed. The emphasis here is on the word “creates.” Because here the author of the work will explore the character of the hero and his main characteristics. This element emphasizes what the hero’s analysis will be based on created determination, faith and cunning.

✏️Other examples of literary analysis:

The image and character of the Nurses in Romeo and Juliet envelops the main character – Juliet – with warmth, joy, and wit, but at the same time helps the reader realize the tragic catastrophe.

The works of poets such as Rumi, Hafiz and Kabir use such strong emotional symbols as the lover’s longing and the destroyed inn, which demonstrate the desire of a person (his soul) to reunite with the Creator.

How to Write a Title and Introduction to a Literature Essay?

A proper literary analysis essay would require you to have the following:


Before you think of choosing a title, you need to read the given literature carefully, as your title must highlight the content of the literature. Aside from that, it normally comprises the author’s name and the texts you are evaluating. However, you will need to make it as brief and interactive as you can.

Additionally, the usual way of writing a literature essay title is to make use of a significant phrase from the given literature. Afterwards, include a colon, followed by the remaining parts of your chosen title. Although finding a proper title might seem a bit difficult initially, it would get more straightforward as you continue your analysis.


After choosing an appropriate title for your literary analysis, a well-structured introduction should be your first paragraph. Writing an introduction for a literary analysis essay gives an instant outline of the areas your argument is concentrated on. Therefore, you must write your introduction creatively to get the attention of anyone reading it.

The normal procedure of writing an introduction for your literary analysis essay outline is to start with brief facts about the author and the literature. These provided facts would be instrumental in presenting the rest of your essay.

In addition, you can mention a frequently discussed point in the literature and indicate how your thesis will dispute it. Aside from that, you can choose to briefly discuss a specific phrase your essay is based on.

Afterwards, you can finish writing the introduction to a literary analysis essay with a clue about the content of the essay’s body. This style of writing is known as signal posting. Signal posting should be done more elaborately while writing longer literary essays. However, it shouldn’t be multiple sentences in a 5 paragraph structured essay.

How to Write a Body Paragraph for a Literature Essay?

The body of a literature essay is all that is within the literary analysis essay introduction and its conclusion. It comprises your thesis and the textual evidence that backs them. There are some factors you need to consider on how to start off a literary analysis essay while writing. These factors are as follows:

  • Paragraph structure
  • Topic sentences
  • Utilizing textual evidence

Paragraph Structure

Normally in high schools, the structure of a literary essay comprises 5 paragraphs. One of the paragraphs is used in writing the introduction, 3 paragraphs for the body, and the remaining paragraph for the conclusion.

In the main body of the essay, every paragraph must concentrate on a topic. While writing a five-paragraph structured essay, you need to split your thesis into 3 major topics of analysis connected to your essay. You need not write all the points derivable from the literature but just the analysis that backs your thesis.

You don’t need to think too deeply about how to write a literary analysis thesis extensively as it is similar to the short 5-paragraph thesis. For instance, the main body of your essay might consist of 2 or 3 paragraphs, with each of the paragraphs with multiple paragraphs.

Topic Sentences

You must utilize a topic sentence while starting every paragraph to maintain the focus of your points. Using a proper topic sentence would allow every reader to understand the content of your paragraph at a glance.

Utilizing Textual Evidence

One of the vital parts of doing a literary analysis is to support your thesis statement with fitting textual evidence. Using textual evidence involves bringing in clauses from the literature you are analyzing and describing their relevance to your dispute.

Additionally, you must interpret every clause you state in the essay and state the reasons you chose to use them. Your chosen clauses must be well introduced and examined to convince the reader.

Applying clauses from the literature to your essay is not required often, although it is effective while analyzing the author’s language. However, at times you might need to discuss plot topics or structural factors that are impossible to capture in a brief clause.

In such situations, rephrasing or summarizing parts of the literature is the right thing to do. In other words, you will need to discuss the significant parts of the texts in your way.

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Editors on PapersOwl can edit your paper and give recommendations on how to improve your writing:

A Complete Appendix Writing Guide for Beginners

An appendix is a separate section at the end of your paper containing information that may be helpful to readers. However, it’s not necessary unless you have some detailed info that doesn’t fit neatly into the main body text.

Therefore, if you want to know more about it, read this guide and learn what information is added in the appendix section.

Appendix Writing Definition

An appendix is a section that is added at the end of a research paper. It includes additional information that does not fit into the main text of the paper.

The main purpose of writing an appendix is to:

  • Provide the reader with information that supports your study without distracting from the main purpose.
  • Include information that is too long or detailed for the main body text.
  • Include raw test data or results.

Moreover, in MLA and APA style, an appendix is placed after the reference list. It contains the following information:

  • Graph and charts
  • Tables and Figures
  • Interview transcripts
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment used
  • Letters and emails
  • Research survey forms and questionnaires
  • Maps
  • Links to websites

Further, it is important to reference the appendix in your main text discussed in the paper. If you don’t mention any information from an appendix, it should not be included at all in your paper.

Appendix Writing Format

Including an appendix is a good way to store information that isn’t essential but still needs to be included in the paper. Formatting the appendix can seem difficult at first, but you’ll find that it isn’t too complicated.

Here is a general appendix format for your ease.

Appendix Writing Format

  • Heading “Appendix #” (contains a letter or number that might be A or 1)
  • Put it after the reference list and end of your document
  • Add all appendices at the start of the document in the table of contents
  • For each type of information, use a separate page of the appendix

However, the format for the appendix depends on your professor’s requirements. Therefore, ask them first and then start writing it.

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How to Write an Appendix?

You know the format of the appendix, but do you know how to write it? Therefore, for your help, we gathered some steps that you should follow when you start writing the appendix.

Let’s discuss them in detail.

The appendix is a space where you can include raw data that may not receive much attention but will help to support your paper. However, you should only add relevant information about the topic and make sure it’s still accessible for readers to understand.

Raw data like sample calculations that you referred to in the body of the paper and specialized data that expands on information or ideas discussed in your work. You can also include raw statistical data and contributory facts from other sources in an appendix to help support the findings of your paper.

One way to make your paper more engaging is by adding creative visual supporting documents, such as graphs and charts. Also, you may create your own or find an existing one to support the findings in your paper.

One of the most important aspects to consider when conducting research is your tools and materials. You want your reader to understand how you conducted your research, so it’s best not to keep them in suspense and add in the appendix.

Interviews and surveys can be the most valuable part of your research because they provide a unique insight into people’s thoughts. You may also include photocopies of hand-written survey results or saved copies from online surveys completed by other people to provide supporting evidence for your argument if needed.

Appendices are always one of the most overlooked parts of any paper, but they’re also really important. Here’s how to format your appendix, so you don’t get penalized for poor formatting:

  • The appendix is titled at the top of the page.
  • An appendix label is clearly labeled with a number or letter.
  • Use capital letters or a sentence case for writing the word “appendix.”
  • The font size and type remain the same.
  • Use a letter or number if you have more than 1 appendix like appendix A, appendix 1.
  • Begin each appendix with a new page if you have more than 1 appendix.
  • Order the appendix according to the appearance of the content in the paper.
  • Add page numbers at the center or bottom right corner of the page.

Therefore, keep these rules in your mind and avoid any mistakes that make your paper substandard.

It is important to check the appendix for any missing information before submitting your paper. Reviewing this section can help you avoid delays in getting it published and ensure that readers get a seamless reading experience.

One of the most important things to do when proofreading an appendix is to ensure that all areas are covered, and there aren’t any errors. You should check for grammar, spelling, or content problems before you submit your paper. Make sure that every word makes sense and has good sentence structure as well by using correct punctuation.

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Appendix Writing Example

With the help of examples, you will easily write your research paper appendix. Therefore, here are some professionally written examples for your ease.

Appendix Writing Sample

Appendix Writing Sample

Appendix Writing in a Report

Appendix Writing in a Report

Appendix Writing MLA

Appendix Writing MLA

Appendix Writing Thesis

Appendix Writing Thesis

Appendix Writing APA

Now, you have a detailed guide to appendix writing. However, if you are still confused and need a professional writer’s help, consult MyPerfectWords.com. We are the best essay writing service and offer excellent writing services.

So, what are you waiting for? Contact us now and avail the best academic writing help.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do you reference an appendix?

Avoid referencing your appendix in the paper; only signpost them. However, when you add an appendix to work and also include references within it. Then, insert the citations in the text of the appendix and include full references in your reference list.

How long should an appendix be?

Appendixes are not bound by a specific page or word count limit, but they should be lengthy and contain only relevant information.

What is the difference between references and appendices?

A reference shows the sources of the data or material used. It is also known as a bibliography. However, an appendix gives a detailed explanation of something not mentioned in the main text.

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Need a Synthesis Essay Written Fast?

Writing a synthesis essay is one of the most engaging tasks you may face. The purpose of this type of paper, for a college or university student, is to demonstrate that you can deal with extensive research, take apart big concepts, and show the skeleton of the argument.

The perfect paper will take ideas from various sources, summarize them, and combine them into a thesis statement — a single position that the synthesis essay is trying to argue. Identifying the synthesis statement will help you combine it with other theses, helping you to write in cohesive synthesis essay format. If you have ever wondered how to write a synthesis essay, this article from EssayPro’s professional essay writing service will help you compose a synthesis paper outline, or give you a simple structure to guide you through the writing process.

What Is a Synthesis Essay

Writing a synthesis paper is just like creating any other form of thesis. According to the synthesis essay definition, it is a written discussion of ideas. They tend to draw on two or more sources from academic papers, fiction sources, speeches, interviews, articles, lectures, or observations.

In other words, if you have two ideas from a similar topic, you can isolate the core of what they’re trying to say. For instance, you might have a paper that examines the use of smartphones in the modern world, and another on the rise of teenagers in social media. After synthesizing the information, you may come up with a combined thesis like: smartphones and social media are not destroying a generation.

Two Types of Synthesis

  1. Explanatory Synthesis Essay

This type helps readers get a better understanding of a topic. Instead of arguing a point, the goal here is to explain a particular topic.

In the body, explain the topic using sources and present these sources objectively. Like in any regular writing assignment, back up each supporting claim with two or more credible sources.

The goal of this type of paper is to argue a specific topic and justify it with evidence. Unlike the explanatory type, here you will do the same thing you would do if working on a regular argumentative paper. State your position, make supporting claims, and then provide credible evidence to back up each claim.

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How to Choose a Topic

A synthesis paper prompt must be debatable. Depending on your assignment, you may have to choose a primary text. Choose a book that might have opposing viewpoints.

Step 1: Browse through topics and ideas. Read from sources and check selected topics in-depth to see if any of them take your interest.

Step 2: Choose a topic, then gather relevant and useful sources to include in your synthesis paper.

Step 3: Apply ideas from the sources onto your synthesis essay outline. Doing so should make writing far easier and save you time.


It is important for good synthesis essay topics to be debatable as if they have been in public conversations for decades. This makes them emotionally-charged for all sides involved, and this will likely mean that a lot of evidence for them will be widely available.

  • Income inequality
  • Progressive taxation policy
  • Immigration policy
  • Drug legalization
  • Gun control

Bad topics would be ones in which the debate has long been over, and the scientific community has provided an objective answer for them. Also, bad topics may include those that have a yes or no answer. For instance:

  • The Flat-Earth theory
  • The safety and effectiveness of vaccines
  • Racial supremacy
  • Does gravity exist?
  • Should we trust doctors?

Synthesis Essay Structure

Creating an outline will be useful for structuring your synthesis paper and planning your work. Paste supporting evidence, sub-arguments, and specific points in the appropriate sections. Make sure that every aspect proves the claim of your thesis. Any extra information will only make your paper worse.

If the information goes against your central claim, then you should acknowledge it, as it will make your paper stronger. Make sure you check all of the sources you’ve picked carefully. When writing about the causes, do not summarize them – analyze them. Read further for a sample synthesis essay outline.

The basic synthesis essay outline template contains three major parts:

  1. Introduction with a thesis statement
  2. Body, which contains arguments and counterarguments to the thesis
  3. Conclusion

An outline for a synthesis essay starts with an introduction, which is a brief description of what the paper will be about. It will consist of a hook, the background and relevance of your topic, and the thesis statement. How to write a synthesis statement is explained below.

Example: An article published by Jean Twenge clearly warns readers that the rise in the use of smartphones in the modern world is ruining teenagers. Furthermore, the author makes a sensational claim that the rise in social media and smartphone usage are creating a metaphorical earthquake with a magnitude never previously witnessed in the world. The author then provides pieces of evidence from other studies concerning the issue as well as personal observations — all of which seem to support his claim. According to Twenge, the main hypothesis for claiming that smartphones and social media usage result in destroying a generation is that increased use of these two platforms results in mental depression and other mental issues. This paper will mainly refute the claims of the author by focusing on the issues raised by the work.

Synthesis writing always includes a thesis, which is the central argument of the entire paper. Your thesis should be the core argument of separately sourced theses.

Example of a synthesis thesis: Although technology has brought tremendous changes to society, the use of smartphones and social media are not in any way destroying a generation, especially when looking at the reasons portrayed by Twenge.

The first paragraph must present a counterargument to your thesis. This demonstrates your ability to think from an opposing point of view — which can be greatly valued in higher educational facilities. Be sure to note that the counterargument isn’t strong enough to discredit your thesis.

Example: One of the main reasons for not supporting the article and observations by the author is the fact that all of the pieces of evidence chosen found by the author are biased. Twenge only uses and reviews studies that inherently support her views.

Your next paragraphs should now present arguments in favor of the thesis. Remember to structure all paragraphs in the body using the following synthesis format:

  • Supporting Argument
  • Topic Sentence
  • Evidence
  • Analysis of Evidence

Example: At the same time, she ignores other studies which have been conducted to show that screen time does not have major impacts on depression and other mental health related conditions that affect teenagers. In one claim, the researcher used a study that contended that the more teens used social media like Facebook, the more they became depressed. However, she did not dwell on the issue of depression, yet the same research revealed that being depressed as a result of using Facebook did not result in more Facebook usage (Twenge). Such findings remove the blame from Facebook, as it shows clearly that unhappiness and Facebook are not entirely correlated—as portrayed by the Twenge. Moreover, by not using Facebook more often after they have become unhappy suggests that the use of Facebook has not entirely replaced how teenagers could use social media to find alternative happiness or to come out of their depression.

A conclusion should be a summary of the overall paper. Then, conclude the paper with a final sentence. In other words, restate the main points and address any unanswered questions.

Example: To replace various factors that signified the previous generation, such as teen pregnancy and underage alcohol usage, as some of the indicators of how harmful these devices are to the current generation. All of these issues that have affected the previous generation have also had an impact on the future lives of teenagers, and by reducing them, it definitely signifies a more prosperous generation, based on moAlthough Jean Twenge has certain valid claims on the use of social media and teenagers, there is a lot of bias in her article, which further reduces the credibility of her article. She chooses only to focus on one side of the issue and completely neglects to give any attention to ideas that would oppose her stance, which shows that social media and smartphones could be of great use to teenagers. She also chooses to replace various bad factors that signified the previous generation, such as teen pregnancy and underage alcohol usage as some of the indicators of how harmful these devices are to the current generation. All these issues that affected the previous generation have much impact on the future lives of teenagers, and by reducing them, it definitely signifies a better generation, based on moral and values

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